عنوان مقاله [English]
Migration means traveling and moving a human being from one country to another country for living and residence. This
Migration involves the movement of individuals from one country to another for the purpose of living and settling. This economic phenomenon can be examined through social, cultural, political, and popular lenses. This research focuses on the right of Muslims to immigrate to non-Islamic countries and establish residence, exploring it in the context of jurisprudential standards and international law doctrines. The investigation delves into the permissibility of Muslim migration to non-Islamic countries and the acceptability of continued residence in such countries, drawing from jurisprudence and international law doctrines.
The research encompasses various aspects, including "international law and the migration and settlement of individuals," "background study and jurisprudential stance on Muslim migration and residence in non-Islamic countries," "foundations and evidence for arguments against living in non-Islamic countries under non-Islamic laws," "foundations and evidence for arguments supporting living in non-Islamic countries," and "critique of the foundations and evidence supporting permissibility and sanctity," followed by an analysis and conclusion.
The research adopts an analytical approach, considering the interdisciplinary and comparative nature of the subject matter. It juxtaposes teachings from the fields of jurisprudence and international law to address the discussed issue comprehensively. The findings of this research, particularly in the realm of international law and guided by the principles of the international human rights system, establish the right to immigration and residence as a fundamental first-generation right. This right finds its expression in documents such as the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" and the "International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights," with the principle of freedom of movement serving as a tangible manifestation of this right.
Recognizing the earth as humanity's home, as reflected in various international documents, forms the basis for acknowledging the right of individuals to utilize it and migrate freely across its territories. This viewpoint aligns with the notion of "God's land is vast," which underpins the right to immigrate and reside within religious thought and the Holy Qur'an. Both perspectives emphasize the right of human beings to utilize the land, with migration and settlement serving as examples of this entitlement.
In international law and the teachings of the international human rights system, the focus is on the right to immigration and residence rather than the religious affiliation of the migrant. The destination country's religion holds limited relevance. Conversely, within the literature of accomplished scholars of jurisprudence, migration has primarily been discussed in the context of moving from "Dar al-Kafr" (land of disbelief) to "Dar al-Aman" or "Dar al-Islam" (lands of safety or Islam) for individuals unable to practice their religion and rituals freely. Thus, contrary to the teachings of international law and the international human rights system, the religious identity of the migrant and the Islamic nature of the destination country have become subjective factors. The focus for many jurists has been on reverse migration from non-Islamic lands to Islamic countries and the ensuing settlement.
Challenging the foundations of the jurisprudential division of the world into "Dar al-Islam" and "Dar al-Kufr" (lands of Islam and lands of disbelief) and the dual worldview based on an insider-outsider geographical dichotomy plays a crucial role in determining the outcome of the subject investigated in this research. This division, which serves as an epistemological starting point for several matters related to Islamic communication algorithms in the international arena, has profound implications. One might argue that the concept and issue of migration fundamentally represent concepts and issues of the post-modern state. Consequently, the right to immigration within the international human rights system emerges as a new issue intertwined with the challenges posed by the modern state, differing from the jurisprudential literature's division of the world into "Dar al-Islam" and "Dar al-Kufr" (lands of Islam and lands of disbelief).
In general, regarding the right to immigration and residence of a Muslim person in non-Islamic countries, two main ideas can be identified: the idea of prohibition and the idea of permission. Proponents of both ideas rely on Sharia documents, including Quranic statements, Sunnah, consensus, and interpretations, to support their arguments. However, it appears that a holistic and systematic study reveals that the verses and propositions cited by proponents of different ideas do not definitively disprove opposing claims. It is essential to avoid drawing conclusions solely based on atomistic analysis.
Moreover, paying attention to reason and rationality becomes imperative in this research. Considering the broader objectives of the law, it becomes clear that reason understands the importance and necessity of preserving Islamic religion, identity, and independence while also facilitating religious life in the modern world. Believing in comprehensive, universal, and eternal Islamic teachings, the understanding of reason leads to different interpretations of the requirements for immigration to Islamic countries, ranging from necessity to illegitimacy. Reason recognizes that human and Islamic life may not be compatible with life in Islamic countries in certain situations, times, and places.
In conclusion, this research investigates the right of Muslims to immigrate to non-Islamic countries and establish residence by examining jurisprudential standards and international law doctrines. It emphasizes that the right to immigration and residence is a fundamental first-generation right within the international human rights system. The research challenges the dichotomy between "Dar al-Islam" and "Dar al-Kufr" and explores the complexities and subjective factors associated with the religious identity of migrants and the nature of the destination country. Furthermore, it highlights the importance of reason and rationality in understanding the necessity or illegitimacy of immigration to Islamic countries. By considering these aspects, this research aims to contribute to a comprehensive understanding of migration within the context of Muslims' rights and international legal frameworks.