احراز مسئولیت دولت در خصوص ارتکاب ژنوسید: در تقابل یا تعامل با روند عدالت انتقالی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار حقوق دانشگاه بوعلی سینای همدان

2 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد حقوق بین‌الملل دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی تهران

چکیده

چکیده
دیوان بین‌المللی دادگستری در قضیه دعوای «بوسنی و هرزگوین علیه صربستان و مونته‌نگرو (2007)» اعلام­کرد که کنوانسیون ژنوسید در کنار شناسایی مسئولیت کیفری افراد، حاوی تعهدی مبنی بر عدم ­ارتکاب ژنوسید توسط دولت نیز است. برخی از حقوقدانان با انتقاد از این یافته دیوان، معتقدند که چنین تفسیری از کنوانسیون تداعی‌کننده مسئولیت کیفری دولت است و این چرخه تنفرهای گروهی را دائمی خواهد ساخت و در روند عدالت انتقالی اختلال ایجاد خواهدکرد. روندی که در گذشته با تکیه بر میراث محاکمه­های نورمبرگ، دیگر سازوکارها از قبیل احراز مسئولیت دولت را به علت نبود تفکیک روشنی بین مفهوم مسئولیت جمعی از تقصیر جمعی به حاشیه رانده­ بود؛ اما احراز مسئولیت دولت در خصوص ژنوسید نه‌تنها در تعارض با اهداف عدالت انتقالی نیست، بلکه تحقق آن روند را میسر خواهدساخت، زیرا با شناسایی مسئولیت مدنی دولت، هم خسارات قربانیان جبران می‌گردد وهم مسئولیتی جمعی بر عموم شهروندان، تحمیل می‌گردد که ناشی از مسئولیت حقوقی آنان برای مشارکت و یا سکوت در برابر آن جنایت است و با ارائه روایتی یکپارچه از جرائم ارتکابی، نقایص رسیدگی‌های موردی در دادگاههای کیفری را برطرف می کند.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The State Responsibility for Commission of Genocide: Confrontation or Interaction with Transitional Justice Process

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sattar Azizi 1
  • Mohammad Hadji 2
چکیده [English]

Abstract
International court of justice has declaredin the genocide case (Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Serbia and Montenegro) that the genocide convention involves the state obligation of non- commission of this crime as well as adoption of individual criminal responsibility. This finding has been criticised by many jurists. They consider such interpretation is indicator of state criminal responsibility and would prolong cycle of group hate and will make disturbance in realization  of the transitional justice process  . Traditional approach of transitional justice with an exclusively emphasize on the mechanism of the punishment of individual perpetrators of the international crimes as a heritage of Nuremberg trails marginalized others mechanisms including holding state responsibility due to absence of any clear distinction between collective guilt and collective responsibility. But state responsibility for commission of genocide not only in conflict with the goals of transitional justice but also it is contributing to realization of that process, because by recognition of civil responsibility of state on one side it would be compensate any the damages suffered to victims and on other side it imposing collective responsibility on all citizens of convicted state which is result of legal Responsibility for taking part  or be silence in commission of crimes and by providing an unifiednarrative on committed crimes  rectify weaknesses  of  the case by case trails byinternational Criminal courts.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Transitional Justice
  • Collective Guilt
  • Collective Responsibility
  • Genocide
  • International State Responsibility
  • Genocide Convention

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