حمایت حقوق بین‏الملل از میراث فرهنگی و تاریخی در زمان اشغال نظامی با تأکید بر مسؤولیت ایالات‌متحده آمریکا در دوران اشغال نظامی عراق

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

10.22099/jls.2015.3501

چکیده

چکیده
جنگ خصمانه‌ترین رابطه میان دولت‌هاست که گاه به اشغال نظامی سرزمین یک طرف جنگ توسط طرف دیگر منجر می‌گردد. حقوق مخاصمات مسلحانه تکالیف متعددی را برای قدرت اشغالگر تعیین می‌کند و از این دولت می‌خواهد در مقابل اختیارات وسیعی که در سرزمین اشغالی دارا می‌گردد به تعهداتی عمل نماید. میراث فرهنگی و تاریخی هر کشور به‌صورت بالقوه حتی در زمان صلح در خطر قرار دارند و میزان این خطر در زمان جنگ و البته اشغال نظامی قطعاً افزایش می‌یابد. تجربه به دست آمده در اشغال عراق که منجر به غارت موزه ملی این کشور شد مؤید جدید این ادعاست.بررسی تعهدات حقوقی اشغالگر در حفاظت از میراث فرهنگی و تاریخی کشور اشغال شده و همچنین تحلیل مسؤولیت ایالات متحده آمریکا و متحدانش در خصوص غارت موزه ملی عراق و تخریب برخی از میراث تاریخی شهر بابل از جمله موضوعاتی است که در این مقاله به آن‌ها خواهیم پرداخت.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Protection of International Law of Cultural and Historical Heritages in Belligerent Occupation with Emphasis on the United States Responsibility during Occupation of Iraq

چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
War is the most hostility relation among states and sometimes can lead to military occupation of the territory of one party by another. The International Law of Armed Conflict grants some authorities to Occupying power over occupied territory and so responsibility for its authorities. Cultural and historical heritages are in potential danger in peace time and this danger will increase during military occupation. Seizing Bagdad National Museum after the occupation of Iraq in 2003 is a new instances for confirming this reality. The writer tries to explain occupying power’s responsibilities to protect cultural and historical heritage during occupation in general and the United States in seizing Iraqi national museum and destruction of Babylon in time of Occupation of Iraq specially.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Military Occupation
  • Occupying Power
  • Occupied Territory
  • Cultural and Historical Heritage
  • Iraqi National Museum

منابع

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